Submission Open for IJEER Volume-3, Number-10, October 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 October, 2019

International Journal for Empirical Education and Research

Different Stages of Evolution of Humankind

Author: Slaven Jozic | Published on: 2017-09-30 21:56:47   Page: 46-77   243

Abstract
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates—in particular genus Homo—and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as interbreeding with other hominines, which indicate that human evolution was not linear but a web. The study of human evolution involves several scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, paleontology, neurobiology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics. Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55 million years ago. Within the Hominoidea (apes) superfamily, the Hominidae family diverged from the Hylobatidae (gibbon) family some 15–20 million years ago; African great apes (subfamily Homininae) diverged from orangutans (Ponginae) about 14 million years ago; the Hominini tribe (humans, Australopithecines and other extinct biped genera, and chimpanzee) parted from the Gorillini tribe (gorillas) between 8–9 million years ago; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina (humans and biped ancestors) and Panina (chimps) separated 4–7.5 million years ago.

Keywords
Bipedalism; Brain Size and Tooth Size in Hominines; Sexual Dimorphism; Ulnar Opposition.

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Jozic, S. (2017), Different Stages of Evolution of Humankind. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research, 1(1), 46-77.

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    Jozic, S. (2017) "Different Stages of Evolution of Humankind", International Journal For Empirical Education and Research, 1(1), pp.46-77.

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    Jozic, S.. Different Stages of Evolution of Humankind. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research. 2017; 1(1): 46-77.

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    Author Details


    Slaven Jozic
    School of Built Environment & Development Studies
    University of KwaZulu-Natal
    jozicslaven079@yahoo.com