Submission Open for IJEER Volume-3, Number-10, October 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 October, 2019

International Journal for Empirical Education and Research

All Articles

IJEER 1/1

A Literature Review on Computer Cartography

Anik Shuvra Daw    Page 1-10 261

Depending upon how we look at it, Computer Cartography can be considered now to be twenty years old (the first contour map was produced about twenty years ago), or a dozen years (the first major project in Computer Cartography, the Canadian Geographical Information System was started in 1963). This is not to say that we started out from scratch twelve or twenty years ago. On the contrary, we had all the tools and all the power from different disciplines, including Computer Science, Geography, Cartography and the Survey Sciences. If we assume that every discipline has some milestones in its development, it has to be said that in Computer Cartography these milestones did not happen or happened virtually unnoticed by the discipline. .

Read more

IJEER 1/1

Early Researchers and Development of Cultural Sociology

Maria M. Goodson    Page 11-22 126

Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; these include expressive forms like art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies like tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. .

Read more

IJEER 1/1

Cyclone & its Adverse Effects on Climate Change

Hai Zou    Page 23-35 118

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extra tropical cyclones of the largest scale (the synoptic scale). Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie within smaller musicale.

Read more

IJEER 1/1

A Geographical Description of Exogenesis Processes

Sulislaw Pawlak    Page 36-45 117

The exogenesis processes are the processes that shape the land by forces coming on or above the Earth’s surface (exogenesis forces). These are processes that take place on the earth’s surface. They are subdivided in two categories and they are Processes of Degradation, Processes of Ag-gradation. .

Read more

IJEER 1/1

Different Stages of Evolution of Humankind

Slaven Jozic    Page 46-77 117

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates—in particular genus Homo—and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as interbreeding with other hominines, which indicate that human evolution was not linear but a web. The study of human evolution involves several scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, paleontology, neurobiology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics. Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55 million years ago. Within the Hominoidea (apes) superfamily, the Hominidae family diverged from the Hylobatidae (gibbon) family some 15–20 million years ago; African great apes (subfamily Homininae) diverged from orangutans (Ponginae) about 14 million years ago; the Hominini tribe (humans, Australopithecines and other extinct biped genera, and chimpanzee) parted from the Gorillini tribe (gorillas) between 8–9 million years ago; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina (humans and biped ancestors) and Panina (chimps) separated 4–7.

Read more

IJEER 1/2

Storm Surge Causes and Different Variations

Park Mao Ph.D.   Page 1-10 118

A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extra-tropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges. It is a measure of the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement related to tides. The two main meteorological factors contributing to a storm surge are a long fetch of winds spiraling inward toward the storm, and a low-pressure-induced dome of water drawn up under and trailing the storm's center. .

Read more

IJEER 1/2

Structure of Cartography as an Application in Geography

Nicole Mehler    Page 11-17 93

Cartography (sheet of papyrus) is the study & practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics & techniques, Cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in the ways that communicate spatial information effectively. .

Read more

IJEER 1/2

Effect of Hydrological Cycle on Climate

Lian Sung    Page 18-27 109

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass of water on Earth remains constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flow. In doing so, the water goes through different forms: liquid, solid (ice) and vapor. .

Read more

IJEER 1/2

The Historical Development of International Law of the Sea

Tam Xuan Song    Page 28-40 112

Modern Law of the Sea the date of the date of the beginning of the modern international law. Graeasius, a Dutch lawyer who is considered as the law of international law, is considered as a law of the sea. In this issue published in 1609, his basic work, Free Sass, or Murray Liber tom, established some important concepts in this regard. He summarized the principle of freedom of the sea, which is free from the sea and all countries should be open to use. Not to be ambitious about the third United Nations Conference Sea law was one of the most important legislative events of the twentieth century, Centuries this international law initiates a revolution a new legislative strategy for making compromises and universal decisions Participation it creates a comprehensive deal on the sea law.

Read more

IJEER 1/2

Distribution of Races: A Brief Overview

Milenko Bacic    Page 41-52 117

Races of mankind human being living on our planet all belong to the same species. However, varying geographical conditions and climate have resulted in the evolution of different groups called races. It is believed that all people originally came from one common ancestral type but the various groups now have distinct and characteristic differences. However we should not think of racial differences has been hard and fast because the races open overlap and there is no such thing as a pure race. .

Read more

IJEER 1/3

Tornado & its Shape, Size, Rotation, Sound & Seismology

Sylwester Nowicki    Page 1-18 139

A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The windstorm is often referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, and they are often visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (180 km/h), are about 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (480 km/h), are more than two miles (3 km) in diameter, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).

Read more

IJEER 1/3

A Detail on Landslide & its Types

Rudolf Vukelic    Page 19-27 139

The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rock falls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows. Landslides occur in a variety of environments, characterized by either steep or gentle slope gradients: from mountain ranges to coastal cliffs or even underwater, in which case they are called submarine landslides. Gravity is the primary driving force for a landslide to occur, but there are other factors affecting slope stability which produce specific conditions that make a slope prone to failure. In many cases, the landslide is triggered by a specific event (such as a heavy rainfall, an earthquake, a slope cut to build a road, and many others), although this is not always identifiable. .

Read more

IJEER 1/3

A Geographical Overview of Language Family

Sanjin Grgic    Page 28-37 102

Language is a mean of communication among people including speech, writing, and singing. Language is an important factor in geographical diversity. The English word language drives from the Indo-European. Language is the human ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication. The scientific study of language is called linguistic.

Read more

IJEER 1/3

Secondary Level Education Objectives

Guo Chu    Page 49-59 54

Organizations and their expansion in the knowledge, skills, views and values gained before the level of previous education. Give students basic knowledge about their country and nation so that they can properly assess its progress and achievement. Helping students acquire master's proficiency in Bangla and English languages. Understand the importance of the information and communication technologies of the students and in this case, assist in achieving the technical skills of this technology. Helping students to acquire the skills of judicial literacy so that they can verify the accuracy of the information source.

Read more

IJEER 1/3

International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea

Tam Xuan Song    Page 38-48 90

Although most international disputes are resolved through political means, especially as bilateral discussions and suggestions, international decisions and an important element of arbitration dispute settlement. There are several organizations serving as a place to solve the laws of maritime disputes, but special judicial organs specially designed to conduct such disputes in the International Tribunal for the Sea Law (ITLOS). This article is mainly limited to the procedures and procedures of ITLOS, although it and some other judiciary will be compared. In addition, the views and practices of the settlement of judicial disputes in East Asian states will be examined based on the latest cases filed in ITLOSS. This article discusses the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and its relevance.

Read more

IJEER 1/4

Keeling Curve: Result, Interpretation & Global Monitoring

Augustyn Ostrowski    Page 34-38 107

The Keeling Curve is a graph of the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere based on continuous measurements taken at the Mauna Loa Observatory on the island of Hawaii from 1958 to the present day. The curve is named for the scientist Charles David Keeling, who started the monitoring program and supervised it until his death in 2005. .

Read more

IJEER 1/4

Historical Background of Rohingya Crisis between Bangladesh and Myanmar

Md. Ashiquzzaman    Page 1-21 133

The Rohingya refugee crisis is a controversial issue, which has imposed Burma-Bangladesh relations in late 1970s. The Rohingya crisis has created a crisis against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine due to human rights violations of the military junta in Myanmar. Rendered stateless, Rohingya escaped from Bangladesh and other neighboring countries to take shelter. Discussion failed to solve the Rohingya refugee crisis year. This research note proposes the need for intense bilateral and multi-party negotiations, which is a possibility that can be easily available through the democratic process of Myanmar.

Read more

IJEER 1/4

Biotechnology and Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Countries

Shukrah M. ; Abba, U. ; Aminu A., Gambo A., Mu’azu I., Kabir M.    Page 39-49 113

Biotechnology entrepreneurship is now associated with a sustained flow of innovations and tools, offering dramatic improvements in human health and a compelling value proposition for health care and agricultural consumers as a result of entrepreneurial orientation being applied. Biotechnology entrepreneurship in developed and developing nations like that of Japan, China, India and that of Nigeria and even some Asian countries is relatively new and distinct field of entrepreneurial endeavors. Most current empirical researches are conducted in the developed economies and cannot be directly extrapolated to the developing economies. This research used a qualitative research method. The data collection methods were interviews, documents review and observations, which improved the quality of the research through data triangulation.

Read more

IJEER 1/4

Remote Sensing: Resolution, Training and Education as an Application

Lian Fan Ph.D.   Page 21-33 110

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation, especially the Earth. Remote sensing is used in numerous fields, including geography, land surveying and most Earth Science disciplines (for example, hydrology, ecology, meteorology, oceanography, glaciology, geology); it also has military, intelligence, commercial, economic, planning, and humanitarian applications. .

Read more

IJEER 1/4

Human Rights in Contemporary Context of Bangladesh

Ekhlasur Rahman    Page 50-74 105

Bangladesh considers that hunger, poverty, illiteracy which characterize underdevelopment to be formidable impediments, which frustrate the effective enjoyment of human rights. Removal of these impediments through mutual co-operation is, therefore, vital for the full realization of the aims and objectives of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. Bangladesh is pleased to note that the Vienna Declaration adopted in June 1993 at the conclusion of the World Conference on Human Rights highlighted the universal character and the indivisibility of human rights as well as reiterated the fact that existence of extreme poverty inhibits the full and effective enjoyment of human rights and that its immediate alleviation and eventual elimination must remain a high priority for the international community. Bangladesh pledged its total commitment and unwavering support to the United Nations for its continuing efforts in promoting dignity and worth of the human person and for full realization of the principles. Parliament in Bangladesh is sovereign and democratic polity is being given a permanent shape through institution building.

Read more

IJEER 2/1

Fair Income Distribution in Islamic Economics: Wealth Taxes in Turkey in Theory and in Practice

Ahmet AK ; Abdullah Burhan BAHÇE ; Öner GÜMÜS    Page 11-21 140

Islamic economy holds various features in its body. It is possible that one of the most important features is to provide a fair income distribution. Income distribution has a capacity to create indignation in society when income distribution is not formed as fair. Hence, income is not distributed as fair generally in primary income distribution. The government has to interfere in market to provide justice in secondary income distribution.

Read more

IJEER 2/1

Terrorist Attacks in Europe and Options of Terrorism Prevention

JUDr. Milos Deset Ph.D.   Page 22-31 110

The terrorism can be considered as the political or security problem, but it is also the kind of crime, although it is very specific crime. However, considering it as the crime, we can also think about it in the connection with criminological categories as the prevention, for example. When we look at latest terrorist attacks, we can name their several common features. For example, tools, which were used for commitment of these crime, were very simple, because perpetrators attacked by firearms, stabbing weapons or vehicles. That means that perpetrators cannot have more sophisticated skills to commit terrorist attacks by these tools.

Read more

IJEER 2/1

Similarity Concept in Theory Lecturing: Application to Transportation Studies

Jaan Hui Pu    Page 32-40 103

In this paper, a similarity concept is proposed to improve student understanding on difficult and complicated engineering theory. The planned application of this approach is for the Transportation Studies module (CSE6004-A) at School of Engineering, University of Bradford, United Kingdom. In the module, noise induced by road transport and vehicles are taught in depth, where the proposed teaching method will be applied to aid student understanding on the numerical concept of the vibration effect and noise on vehicle braking system. As part of the module planning, the full numerical solution of brake judder/vibration effect, which includes shaking (forced vibration) and nibbling (torsional vibration) effects will be introduced to students where similarity concept will be adapted in its teaching. The successfully applied concept will also be able to utilize by other engineering teaching and modules.

Read more

IJEER 2/1

An Elaboration of the Administrative Theory of the 14 Principles of Management by Henri Fayol

Raymond Edwards    Page 41-52 300

Fayolism was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized the role of management in organizations, developed around 1900 by the French management theorist Henri Fayol (1841–1925). It was through Fayol's work as a philosopher of administration that he contributed most widely to the theory and practice of organizational management. Fayol developed theory of management. According to him managerial excellence is a technically ability and can be acquired. He developed theories and principles of management which are universally accepted and make him universalistic.

Read more

IJEER 2/1

Sonochemical Degradation of Phenol and Para-Chlorophenol in an Ultrasonic bath in the Presence of Inorganic Salts and H2O2

Md. Helal Uddin ; Md. Jahangir Hossain ; Md. Shaharul Islam    Page 53-63 90

Phenol (Ph) and some of its derivatives such as para chloro-phenol (PCP) have received considerable attention from environmental scientists and engineers, due to their undesirable effects in the water environment, where they end up as a result of improper disposal methods. As a consequence, research has been conducted all around the world with the common goal of reducing their concentrations to allowable limits or converting them to non-toxic, non-hazardous forms that may easily be handled by natural decay processes. This report describes a system developed to degrade these substances using sonochemical reactions. Sonochemical degradation of phenolic compounds were carried out in the presence and absence of NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, NaNO3 and H2O2. In sonochemical degradation of phenol in sonicatior hight degradation rate was obtained in the presence of additives H2O2 and followed the order: Ph+H2O2 > Ph+Na2SO4 ? Ph+NaCl > Ph (0 mM salt & additive) ? Ph+NaNO3 > Ph+Na2CO3.

Read more

IJEER 2/1

Corruption – Development of Criminal Matter in Slovakia, Criminal Liability of the Government Entities and Legal Persons

Adrián Jalc Ph.D.   Page 64-82 83

In the countries from central Europe we can find corruption not only on high level but also in low level called "less serious corruption". However, this corruption is spread in all parts of the society. It causes that almost all citizens of these regions have already had experiences with concrete and not official, but essential payments in diverse fields, for instances: in health services, educational system etc. Next problem is that the fight against corruption is very difficult because many employees of police, justice and plaintiff who would have to take the responsibility of corruption are often people who are the most influenced by it. Considering the weight of this circumstances we can say about necessity of restructualization in the state for the purpose of more effective fight against the corruption.

Read more

IJEER 2/1

Militarization - Is it a Threat to the National Security of Bangladesh?

Kaniz Subarna    Page 83-92 89

Militarization defines as the method by which a state increases its military capacity to defend itself against any kind of violence and war. This note discusses the full and complete concept about militarization with today’s Bangladesh. Militarization can be a threat or not to the national security of Bangladesh, this study shows and describes it well. .

Read more

IJEER 2/1

Inclusive Curriculum Design: Application to Open Channel Hydraulics Module

Jaan Hui Pu    Page 1-10 104

This study investigates an inclusive curriculum design based on student-centred approach. This proposed design approach has been applied to Open Channel Hydraulics module (CSE6008-A) at School of Engineering, University of Bradford, United Kingdom. This paper will introduce in step-by-step manner the full curriculum design and how the student-centred approach is being adapted in each step of the design. The required criteria will be designed based on learning outcomes design, curriculum organization, assessment strategies and student achievement evaluation. Besides, a key discussion will also be allocated for the inclusive practice that allows the vastly diverse student group to benefit from this approach, and a separate section will also be utilized to fully discuss this inclusive approach in the proposed curriculum design.

Read more

IJEER 2/2

Metabolic Changes in Polyamines, Phenylethylamine, And Arginine During Bud Break in Apple Flower Buds Under Foliar-Applied Dormancy-Breaking Agents

Mostafa M. Rady ; *Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 1-18 109

The Environmental and climatic conditions affect the flower bud growth, flowering and yield performance of fruit species. Temperature appears to be important factors for temperate fruit trees in mild climates. The relationships between breaking bud dormancy and climatic influences on flowering, growth and metabolic changes in contents of biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine and phenylethylamine), arginine and anthocyanin before and after bud break were evaluated for "Ain Shemer" apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees under exogenously applied hydrogen cyanamide (dormex), calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 and thiourea. The studies have shown that breaking bud dormancy (as early date of bud break and percentage of bud break) by the above dormancy breaking agents were correlated with the high content of biogenic amines and arginine in buds. Seasonal variations in biogenic amines, arginine and anthocyanin level were present in buds during the research period (dormancy and dormancy release period).

Read more

IJEER 2/2

A Feminist Perspective and the Challenge of Post Conflict Development in Africa

Mashood Omotosho Ph.D.   Page 19-36 99

In the last two decades, Africa has witnessed series of wars and ethno-religious conflicts with devastating impact on women. Various atrocities against women have been recorded during these conflicts and these developments have created a dangerous dimension against non-combatant women in the continent. In an attempt to resolve the conflict and armed conflict on women in the areas of sexual and gender-based violence, series of peace missions and peace building mechanism were put in place. Despite the various peace negotiations, evidence has shown that women are largely absent from formal peace negotiations and their voices are not heard both at local and continental levels especially within the modern-day challenges and post conflict development. In fact, the transformation agenda of post-conflict peace negotiations routinely failed to consider the gendered causes and consequences of armed conflict and post-conflict reconstruction.

Read more

IJEER 2/2

Integrative Potassium Humate and Biochar Application Reduces Salinity Effects and Contaminants, And Improves Growth and Yield of Eggplant Grown Under Saline Conditions

Mostafa M. Rady    Page 37-56 107

In agriculture sector, soil salinity is one of the major problems that limit plant performance, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, including Egypt. The effect of potassium humate (KH) and casuarina biochar (Bch), applied singly or in integration, on plant performance, physio-biochemical attributes and antioxidant, and contents of contaminants of Solanum melongena plants grown under salt stress (EC = 6. 96 – 7. 08 dS m?1 ) was investigated. Results showed that, soil treatment with KH significantly improved plant growth and productivity, physio-biochemical attributes, and contents of K+ , osmoprotectants and antioxidants (soluble sugars, proline and ascorbic acid), and significantly lowered plant contents of contaminants (NO3 ? , NO2 ? and Cd2+) and Na+ ion compared to the untreated controls.

Read more

IJEER 2/2

Foliar-Applied Mineral Oil Enhanced Hormones and Phenols Content and Hastened Breaking Bud Dormancy In “Astrachan” Apple Trees

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 57-73 113

The effect of mineral oil alone or in combination with Dintro-ortho-cresol (Universal) with different concentrations at early reaching break dormancy in buds of ‘Astrachan’ apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees was investigated. Also, their effects on metabolic changes in the content of buds from promoter and inhibitor substances during their release from dormancy were detected. The efficiency of early bud break was noticed in varying degrees with mineral oil or Universal at different concentrations. It was observed that all applied concentrations lead to early bud break, short flowering duration, high percentages of bud break and fruit-set. In addition, high contents of total indoles, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, total and conjugated phenols, as well as, low content of abscisic acid and free phenols were achieved.

Read more

IJEER 2/2

Biotechnology and Performance of SMEs in Nigeria

Nasidi A    Page 74-82 126

Nigerian SMEs suffers greatly in terms of struggling for survival. Access to finance is seen as the root of the major constrains including; limited access to water and power supply, good and quality raw-materials as well as modern infrastructures and processing methods. This paper adopts the desk research approach to review the cause and possible solutions and alternatives that can by-pass such constraints. Biotechnology, due to its natural and broad spectrum of application is seen as the potential solution to many of the problems that paralyses performance of Nigerian SMEs. When applied responsibly, the technology has potential of providing alternative source of; sufficient and high quality raw-materials, water and power supply as well as processing methods for industries at a considerably low price, thus, enhancing environmental friendliness, besides improving opportunities for new initiatives, and also enhancing performance efficiency of existing firms.

Read more

IJEER 2/3

Global Competition and Biotechnology Industry: A Review

Bello S.M. PhD   Page 1-5 141

The biotechnology industry is a relatively new a distinct field that involve using living organism to produce desired product. This industry includes firms that develop, manufacture, and market pharmaceutical products, agricultural products, environmental control product, e. t. c. based on advanced biotechnology research.

Read more

IJEER 2/4

Changes in Promoter and Inhibitor Substances During Dormancy Release in Apple Buds Under Foliar-Applied Dormancy-Breaking Agents

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 1-20 89

The effect of hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex) at different concentrations for reaching early break dormancy in buds of "Astrachan" apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees and their effects on metabolic changes in the content of buds from promoter and inhibitor substances during their release from dormancy was investigated. The efficiency of early bud break was noticed in varying degrees with Dormex at different concentrations. All applied concentrations led to early bud break, short flowering duration, high percentages of bud break and fruit-set, high contents of total indoles, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, total and conjugated phenols and low content of abscisic acid and free phenols. These results were positively reflected in the final yield. Accordingly, we recommend using Dormex at 3% for reaching the early break dormancy in buds of "Astrachan" apple trees under Egyptian winter conditions and maximizing the yield by regulating the hormonal and phenolic content in buds.

Read more

IJEER 2/4

The Theory of Reality: A Critical & Philosophical Elaboration

Kathryn Collins    Page 21-26 71

Reality is a concept of things which really exist. In philosophy and science reality has discussed elaborately. This essay concerned this elaboration. In a wider definition, reality includes everything that is and has been, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible. A still broader definition includes everything that has existed, exists, or will exist.

Read more

IJEER 2/4

Metalworking Fluid Exposure and Consequences on Skin Health in a Metal Machining Factory: Review Article

Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Jabbar Ph.D.   Page 27-35 103

Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a variety of substances can be used during machining of metals such as cutting, turning, grinding, milling and drilling. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in United States of America has stated that MWFs available in different forms such as straight oil (neat oil), soluble oil (emulsifiable oil), semisynthetic MWFs, and synthetic MWFs and during the machining processes worker can be exposed to MWFs through skin contact and inhalation. MWFs in machining factory allow significant bacterial growth in the fluids and aerosols which cause dermatological and respiratory adverse health effects among exposed workers. skin diseases that MWF exposure can cause various morphology of skin disorders such as skin scaling or dryness. Semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods (DREAM) in both occupational and epidemiological survey.

Read more

IJEER 2/4

Changes in Metabolic Processes during Break Dormancy in Apple Buds under Foliar-Applied Garlic Extract

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 36-57 109

The effect of garlic extract at different concentrations for reaching early break dormancy in buds of "Anna" apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees and their effects on metabolic changes in the content of shoots from (water content %, total carbohydrates, total sugars, reducing sugars, anthocyanine, total free amino acids, free proline, total indoles and free phenoles) during their release from dormancy were investigated. The trees were grown in loamy sand soil, and sprayed with five treatments; 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% garlic extract. Generally, it was found that all studied flowering parameters; date of flower buds break, percentage of bud’s break, fruit set, total number of fruits/tree, yield/tree (kg) and seasonal changes in some chemical constituents of shoots; water content %, total carbohydrates, total sugars, reducing sugars, anthocyanine, total free amino acids, free proline and total indoles were increased with the application of different treatments. The best results were obtained from the treatments of garlic extract at 15 % flowed by 20 %. On the contrary, the same treatments decreased free phenols in shoots as compared to the control.

Read more

IJEER 2/5

Human Rights Implications of the NonRefoulement & Development

Imrul Sheikh    Page 1-16 77

States are obliged for protection of refugees under international law on account of their membership of United Nations and signature or accession to International Refugee Instruments as well as International Human Rights Instruments. The legal basis for this international protection may either be customary international law or conventional international law. The basic customary international laws applicable to them are those pertinent fundamental human rights found in the International Bill of Human Rights. Hence, it is submitted that all states should protect the fundamental human rights of refugees under customary international law. Principle of non-refoulement is one of them.

Read more

IJEER 2/5

Utilitarianism theory according to Bentham and Stuart Mill

Hafiz Zafa Daher    Page 17-26 75

Both Mill and Bentham was the prominent upholder of utilitarianism theory. They both have differences in their thinking. Bentham's work opens with a statement of the principle of utility. Mill rejects a purely quantitative measurement of utility. Thus we will discuss about their viewpoints in this article.

Read more

IJEER 2/5

Discussion on Different types of Government

Esam Umayyah Nazari    Page 27-41 76

This article lists forms of government and political systems, according to a series of different ways of categorising them. The systems listed are not mutually exclusive, and often have overlapping definitions. We will know about democracy, totalitarianism and so on. We all will be able to know about many kinds of governments and their types. We all know their history, characteristics.

Read more

IJEER 2/5

Culture: Functions, Characteristics and its Influences in Education

Hishma el Murad    Page 42-52 75

Culture is the behavioural traits of a group. Education can be the way those traits are passed on to members of the group who are not sufficiently aware of those traits. Education may also be a way a method of passing on paradigms that allow for the group's greater efficiency. Culture is just habits and practices of people in essence. Culture can be seen as cultivated, but not necessareliy.

Read more

IJEER 2/5

A Details of Sociology and its Relation to Human Society

Maajida Al Baig    Page 53-60 70

Abstract Sociology referring social science is in important course for study. In this article we will discuss about some introductory topics. We will learn some terms of sociology. Thus we will discuss about basic elements of sociology. .

Read more

IJEER 2/6

An Analysis of the Anti-Tobacco Laws in Bangladesh

Abdullah Khan    Page 1-15 68

Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and death. It is the global public health concern. In Bangladesh it is related to the tradition and also consider as a taboo of the society, that’s why people are not conscious about the harmful effects of the tobacco. The women, children and aged people are in high risk of the probable effects of tobacco. The cultivation of the tobacco also damage, displaced and unfertile the soil and putting harmful effects on environment, economy and social norms.

Read more

IJEER 2/6

Kant’s Categorical Imperative and Duty

Karif Jal Basara    Page 16-26 54

The categorical imperative is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant. Introduced in Kant's 1785 Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, it may be defined as a way of evaluating motivations for action. .

Read more

IJEER 2/6

Meta-ethics: Descriptivism, Emotivism & Prescriptivism

Ratib Jubair Deeb Ph.D.   Page 27-38 59

Here, we will discuss about some theories of meta-ethics. Meta-ethics the branch of philosophy discusses about many moral terms. It focuses on the nature of moral terms. Here the meaning of moral terms are descriptive or imperative or emotive in nature. The differences are presented by many philosophers as like Warnock, Moore, Searle, Ross and so on.

Read more

IJEER 2/6

Subject Matters & Theories of Philosophical Education

Sadaqat Najeeb Naifeh    Page 39-49 51

We will discuss here about some scopes of philosophy of education. We will also know the method of differences in education. The methods of education differs in various places. There are many kinds of theories of education. .

Read more

IJEER 2/6

Aesthetical Quality & Artistic Values of Beauty of Tagore and Seal

Md. Mahadi Hassan    Page 50-61 59

Some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty while the latter is the study of works of art. However, most commonly Aesthetics encompasses both questions around beauty as well as questions about art. It examines topics such as aesthetic objects, aesthetic experience, and aesthetic judgments. For some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these closely related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object (not necessarily an art object), while artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work.

Read more

IJEER 2/7

Development of Values in Education

Dario Hrvat    Page 1-11 76

Developing values in education is a very important issue. Content, teachers' attitudes, teaching environment, these components have special structure and influence of students. A student's school will build its values on the belief that it will gain. A person who values positive attributes is a qualified teacher. Because of his values and Philosophy, he can influence the students.

Read more

IJEER 2/7

Administrations of Legal History in British Periods

Muneer Najid Toma    Page 12-22 64

The Law School is home to one of the world’s great programs in the study of legal history. The history of law offers indispensable insights into the character of our legal systems. Historical materials appear throughout the Law School’s curriculum with specialized courses addressing topics in the history of legal systems around the world. .

Read more

IJEER 2/7

Theory & Analysis of Contemporary Political Philosophy

Mahbub Rafiq Totah    Page 23-36 58

Here we will discuss about many viewpoints of modern political philosophy. Many modern political philosophers of modern time will be discussed here. Here some philosophers are also economists, scholars and so on. Here the history of political philosophy will be discussed. The origin of this period and long silence of the history are described.

Read more

IJEER 2/7

Convention & National Politics for the Protection of Marine Environment

Anonto Shikder    Page 37-53 61

International law relevant to the protection and preservation of the marine environment is well-developed. An appendix to this paper provides summary information on its main components. The basic rules on States' rights and obligations have been established and are generally accepted, and special regimes specific to certain sources of pollution, with the notable exception of land-based sources—the main source of marine degradation—have been operational for some time. Some future developments will be specific to the marine environment, where the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea provides the necessary framework; others reside with the progressive development of international environmental law generally; yet others will depend on a reorientation of international policies, particularly in the economic domain. .

Read more

IJEER 2/7

Vilfredo Pareto Philosophical Theory, Action & Residue with its Classification

Mamduh Kahil Sabbag    Page 54-66 60

Vilfredo Pareto summarized his aim in writing his major sociological work, “The treatise on General Sociology. ” His ambition was to construct a system of sociology analogous in its essential features of the generalized physicochemical system. The treatise attempts to study only non-rational aspects of action. Now we will discuss about his views. .

Read more

IJEER 2/8

The Goal of Education at the Secondary Level

Mahrus Esam Maroun    Page 1-11 47

To develop their knowledge, skills and outlook so that future citizens of Bangladesh can lead a healthy, productive and fulfilling life. To make aware of the heritage of citizens, rich cultural diversity and the heritage of religious tolerance. A well-intentioned mind and rational thinking is the power, which serves as a successful growth for the citizens of higher education and workplace. Under the influence of globalization, the international labor market supports the ability to respond positively to the negligible demand, such as literacy, mathematical knowledge, information and communication technology, communication through English. The deprived person is entitled to the qualities that the true falsehood is able to solve the problems of daily life by acquiring the right living standards of citizenship rights and responsibilities of good living and environmental personal liability.

Read more

IJEER 2/8

Influence of the Teacher's Personal Beliefs and Values in Teaching

Ivan Szabo    Page 12-21 51

Regular and adequate reading of teachers will increase knowledge related to the topic. With the spirit of the War of Liberation, there will be a need to develop the person's consciousness to protect freedom, sovereignty and integrity. In order to help educate the education and help the production, the contents of the curriculum should be presented in class by the technical and participatory technique. Students will have to practice to work in an active participative way. To make students aware about the surrounding environment, people need to use their real-life experience to provide realistic ideas about nature social technology.

Read more

IJEER 2/8

The Way to Understand Teaching and Attitudes of Teachers and Learners

Christiana Hagenes    Page 22-30 52

Provide proper pre-preparation and planning on the subject by taking lessons. Find out student experiences and apply them in the classroom. Always encourage commentary about the work of the students, recognition of their work and rewarding them. Visiting students from the same perspective. Use techniques to ensure equal participation of students in the class.

Read more

IJEER 2/8

Art and Education

Davorin Stolar Ph.D.   Page 31-41 96

Here, in this article, I will try to focus on art and how it is related with forms of education. How the education can be based on art here will be described. Due to the great importance of arts education I choose to reflect this view on this discussion. Besides, the basic idea of education and art are described here. Art and many theories of art are described here.

Read more

IJEER 2/8

Nitrogen Cycle: Impact on Global Environment

Yul Ho    Page 42-52 131

Schematic representation of the flow of nitrogen through the ecosystem. The importance of bacteria in the cycle is immediately recognized as being a key element in the cycle, providing different forms of nitrogen compounds assailable by higher organisms. The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems. The conversion of nitrogen can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification.

Read more

IJEER 2/9

Teacher's Role in the Development of Student Relations

Catalina Danila Ph.D.   Page 12-24 46

Give freedom to students in classrooms. Emphasize student opinion. The classroom is designed to teach learning. Keeping the continuity of each episode of learning disciplines. Know all the names of students and call on their names.

Read more

IJEER 2/9

Strategies to Effective Implementation

Tain Su    Page 25-35 46

Someone will have effective role in implementing the results and will directly take initiative in this regard. To play a strong role in developing a positive attitude about the success of related students. Observers will identify observers as trainers. The role of observers in the field of growth can be either single or group. Another teammate will work as a co-observer to make the same result.

Read more

IJEER 2/9

Knowledge and Knowing

Lutfi Sabeer Maloof Ph.D.   Page 36-49 96

This is an article including some aspects of knowledge. In this article, I will try to establish the distinction between knowledge and knowing. This is important discussion to know how to know and how to get knowledge. There are different forms of knowledge in the real world. Though they seem same or similar but there are different from each other.

Read more

IJEER 2/9

The Rules of Convergence

Dumitrana Mircea    Page 50-62 47

Observers and supervised teachers sit together and discuss some of the teaching skills before teaching as the criterion for the development. Observers and trainee teachers can arrange pre-harvesting matches where the positive aspects of fertility may be discussed. Make observer sheets for how to collect information and keep records while watching observer lessons. At the end of the reading, according to the predetermined criteria, the teachers and the instructors will sit together and give the result through constructive criticism. Without watching the observer, patiently listening to the teacher's speech.

Read more

IJEER 2/10

Role Playing In the Field Of Education

Yuan Lo    Page 1-13 48

The character and status are presented together. Others have to play the role. The real situation is to be presented in a simple way. It can be understood how to adapt yourself to the real field. The role of the actress is to be revealed.

Read more

IJEER 2/10

Applied Technique of Acting in the Role of Teaching

Cong Hao    Page 14-24 53

In the short speech, the content of the lesson will be presented to the students in front of the students, so the students will get an initial idea about the content. The formation of the team after the tearing of the teachers and the students will divide one or the other character of the team members. Students will discuss the role of this character among themselves or by grouping themselves and try to understand. The teachers will ask each group member to think about their character. The character of the subject matter of the subject will be presented through acting or dialogue.

Read more

IJEER 2/10

Teacher's Personal Verbal Expression and Physical Posture in Teaching

Sadiq Rihab Shalhoub Ph.D.   Page 25-37 51

The oral language will be elegant and beautiful. While speaking verbally, the voice and the pronunciation must be beautiful and clear. The contents of the lesson will be presented as nice and interesting as a story. It will not be acceptable to students if they do not have to present an object or event in an elegant manner. Storytelling poems will be used properly in the role of acting in the role of the role, then the students will be interested in learning.

Read more

IJEER 2/10

The importance of listening to the lessons

Nasih Sab Naifeh    Page 38-51 59

Expression of knowing and informing anything. Follow oral instructions. Remember the events continuously. Participate in the discussion of the class. Know the origin of any event or content.

Read more

IJEER 2/10

The way to develop listening skills

Khairi Anbar Abboud Ph.D.   Page 52-66 93

Scripps are very effective for students to practice in the school. Through this, students can test whether they are able to write properly after the teacher's speech. Teachers will tell the story of stories, tell stories and tell the story of the students in the next stage. The teacher will read a part by pronouncing correct. If he asked the student to read the party, how much he could read in proper pronunciation, how much he practiced, how much he practiced, how much he was thinking about listening to it.

Read more

IJEER 2/12

Idea of Teaching and Learning Environment

Miroslav Beneš Ph.D.   Page 1-13 120

This is an article containing a modern topic related importantly education. Teaching and learning ae most important part of educational process. In this article, I will try to represent many ideas related the headline topic. The educational purpose is related to many thing as like many kinds of skills, child behavior and many other things. This important discussion will make you wise about this course of education.

Read more

IJEER 2/12

Child and Their Development

Rebecca Agnew    Page 14-26 102

We know that what is life. Being child is a period of life circle. If you want to know that what about child, then the term development comes automatically. Chide development is an important matter. There many problems become while developing a child.

Read more

IJEER 3/1

International Labor Organization & its Contribution in Different Periods

Sanabil Almubidin    Page 1-12 111

The International Labor Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency that sets international labor standards and promotes social protection and work opportunities for all. The ILO has 187 member states: 186 of the 193 UN member states plus the Cook Islands are members of the ILO. The tripartite structure is unique to the ILO where representatives from the government, employers and employees openly debate and create labor standards. The International Labor Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labor Organization. It is the focal point for International Labor Organization's overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General.

Read more

IJEER 3/1

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

N. S. Raju    Page 13-25 100

Acknowledging that change in the Earth’s climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind, concerned that human activities have been substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, that these increases enhance the natural greenhouse effect, and that this will result on average in an additional warming of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere and may adversely affect natural ecosystems and humankind. Noting that the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries, that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs. Aware of the role and importance in terrestrial and marine ecosystems of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases. Noting that there are many uncertainties in predictions of climate change, particularly with regard to the timing, magnitude and regional patterns thereof. Acknowledging that the global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions.

Read more

IJEER 3/1

An Overview on Different Dimensions of OSCE

Anand Inani    Page 26-41 100

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria and its institutions. It has its origins in the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) held in Helsinki, Finland. .

Read more

IJEER 3/1

European Union & its Contribution to the Development of Society and Nation

Masum Billah    Page 42-69 113

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardized system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished.

Read more

IJEER 3/1

Geographic Information System & Spatial Analysis

Naser Ahmed Bipu    Page 70-90 115

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. GIS (more commonly GIS science) sometimes refers to geographic information science (GIS science), the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems. GIS can refer to a number of different technologies, processes, techniques and methods. It is attached to many operations and has many applications related to engineering, planning, management, transport/logistics, insurance, telecommunications, and business.

Read more

IJEER 3/2

Impact of Propolis Extract as Foliar Spray On Growth, Yield and Some Chemical Composition of Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.) Plants Grown Under Calcareous Saline Soil

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 1-14 145

This experiment was suggested to study the beneficial effects of foliar application with propolis extract at the rates 0, 6000, 7000, 8000 and 9000 mg/L solution used as foliar application to spinach seedlings on growth, yield and some chemical constituents of spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L. ) grown under calcareous saline soil conditions. All experiments were achieved during the two successive seasons of 2016 and 2017. Results showed that increasing the rates of propolis extract as foliar application increased the growth parameters of the treated plants. The best result was obtained by the rate (8000 mg/L) as a foliar application in both seasons of the study.

Read more

IJEER 3/2

Global Warming Potential & its Importance

Anik Shuvra Daw    Page 15-20 91

Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere up to a specific time horizon, relative to carbon dioxide. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide and is expressed as a factor of carbon dioxide. .

Read more

IJEER 3/2

South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation & its Contribution to the South Asian Politics and Economy

Masum Billah    Page 21-30 96

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia. Its member states include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC comprises 3% of the world's area, 21% of the world's population and 3. 8% (US$2. 9 trillion) of the global economy, as of 2015.

Read more

IJEER 3/2

Supply Chain Management: A Descriptive Conception

Katharine R Berthold    Page 42-65 159

In commerce, supply-chain management (SCM), the management of the flow of goods and services, involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses combine in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain. .

Read more

IJEER 3/2

Flooding in Bangladesh: A Geographical Advantage & Disadvantage of Times

Jahidul Islam    Page 31-41 97

Bangladesh is prone to flooding due to being situated on the Ganges Delta and the many distributaries flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Coastal flooding, combined with the bursting of river banks is common, and severely affects the landscape and society of Bangladesh. 80% of Bangladesh is floodplain, and it has an extensive sea coastline, rendering the nation very much at risk of periodic widespread damage. Whilst more permanent defenses, strengthened with reinforced concrete, are being built, many embankments are composed purely of soil and turf and made by local farmers. Flooding normally occurs during the monsoon season from June to September.

Read more

IJEER 3/3

Seasonal Changes in Soluble and Non-Soluble Carbohydrates during and After Dormancy Release in Early and Late Varieties of Apple (Malus Sylvestris, Mill) Trees

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 1-18 104

The flower bud abortion is one of the main problems that limit apple varieties production in the Egypt. Insufficient chilling during the dormancy period is known as the main factor of this problem. One of the hypotheses to explain this problem is that the starch mobilization and carbohydrate fluxes to the buds are impeded when mild temperatures occurred during winter. In order to produce the physiological bases for choosing early- opining apple varieties that may avoid the depleted low winter temperatures, the terribly early and late- opining apple variety Barkhar, Local and Strakhan (Malus domestica) were used to study the relation between the seasonal changes and balance of water, dry weight and carbohydrates metabolism and opining time. This study investigated potential variations in chilling requirements, bud burst and development in early and late varieties of apple trees.

Read more

IJEER 3/3

The Significance of Teaching and Values of Education

Oliver Horvatincic Ph.D.   Page 19-31 79

Belief is an abstract concept of the human mind. Trust gives birth to faith. Belief is the origin of the person's mental organization. Faith plays a special role in managing the person's life and attitude. The structure of values developed on the basis of faith.

Read more

IJEER 3/3

Philosophy of Education: Different Views of Different Scholars

Pooja Tiwari    Page 32-41 85

Your educational philosophy is your beliefs about why, what and how you teach, whom you teach, and about the nature of learning. It is a set of principles that guides professional action through the events and issues teachers face daily. Sources for your educational philosophy are your life experiences, your values, the environment in which you live, interactions with others and awareness of philosophical approaches. Learning about the branches of philosophy, philosophical world views, and different educational philosophies and theories will help you to determine and shape your own educational philosophy, combined with these other aspects. There are different views about the method of education.

Read more

IJEER 3/3

The Way to Control the Teacher's Tendency and Behavior

Budimir Stanic    Page 42-52 69

Before preparing, prepare the pre-preparation and plan on the subject. See all the students in equal view. Always give encouragement and work to the student for any work. The initiative taken by the school authorities for the professional development of the teacher. Use of participatory methods and techniques to ensure active participation of students in the class.

Read more

IJEER 3/3

The Overall Goal of Education and General Purpose

Tomislav Vuckovic    Page 53-66 67

His physical mental moral and social development through creative development of the person's innate ability and qualities. To give the student the opportunity to develop according to his own talent and tendency and to nurture his creativity. Making skilled, productive and manpower necessary for the socioeconomic development and progress of the country by applying education. To help the student acquire the necessary qualifications and skills in order to earn a living according to his talents and trends. To inspire the student in the open expression of basic thought and to develop liberal thinking and life-oriented, objective and positive outlook in the society.

Read more

IJEER 3/4

Trafficking of Women and Children through the Abandonment of Human Rights in Bangladesh

Redwan Hasan    Page 1-18 91

The study explores that Govt. and NGOs are directly involved in prevention activities. They do conduct prevention activities like mass-awareness raising, capacity building and income generating activities and so on. These activities definitely have impact on the society which is reflected in people’s growing concern about trafficking and in number of trafficking which if not reduced has not increased noticeably; though the impact is very low in comparison to urgency. Besides, it cannot be said that whatever achieved is possible only because of Govt.

Read more

IJEER 3/4

Analysis of Thoughts & Criticisms of Contemporary Muslim Philosophers in Different Periods

Ulfah Wahidah Kattan    Page 19-32 57

Muslim or Islamic philosophy is based on Islam religion. There are logical relations between the discussions, Islamic philosophy had a major impact in Christian Europe, where translation of Arabic philosophical texts into Latin "led to the transformation of almost all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world", with a particularly strong influence of Muslim philosophers being felt in natural philosophy, psychology and metaphysics. .

Read more

IJEER 3/4

Prevention of Cyber Crime in Bangladesh

Ahasn Sheikh    Page 33-47 71

Cybercrime covers such a broad scope of criminal activity; the examples above are only a few of the thousands of crimes that are considered cybercrimes. While computers and the Internet have made our lives easier in many ways, it is unfortunate that people also use these technologies to take advantage of others. Therefore, it is smart to protect yourself by using antivirus and spyware blocking software and being careful where you enter your personal information. So from above discussion we can say that, Cyber means committing any crime by using computer or any act which is forbidden by law, by using information technology. .

Read more

IJEER 3/4

Aspects of Free Market Economy & Autonomy in Applied Philosophy

Shafiqul Islam    Page 48-65 61

The aim of the course is to engage students in a wide variety of activities and experiences that will assist in the development of critical thinking, analysis and problem solving skills. Through exposure to a wide range of historical perspectives across different domains of knowledge (including History, Science, Art, Ethics, Psychology and Literature) and the opportunity to discuss problems and scenarios from everyday life, students will develop a deeper understanding of their personal values and the perspectives of others. This course aims to develop students into inquirers with a critical disposition and a thirst for knowledge. .

Read more

IJEER 3/4

Evolutions Including the Basic Laws of Philosopher Herbert Spencer and His Contributions to Develop the Study

Kaliq Habib Abadi    Page 66-75 61

The basis for Spencer's appeal to many of his generation was that he appeared to offer a ready-made system of belief which could substitute for conventional religious faith at a time when orthodox creeds were crumbling under the advances of modern science. Spencer's philosophical system seemed to demonstrate that it was possible to believe in the ultimate perfection of humanity on the basis of advanced scientific conceptions such as the first law of thermodynamics and biological evolution. Now, we will discuss about him and his contribution. .

Read more

IJEER 3/5

Rohingya Refugees Crisis between Bangladesh and Myanmar: Search for Permanent Solutions

Md. Asiquzzaman    Page 1-19 78

Bangladesh is an occupied population of South Asia. India and Myanmar share the border with the neighboring states of Bangladesh. After independence in 1971, Muslims started experiencing continuous refugee flights of Muslim Rohingyas in Myanmar for fear of religious and ethnic violence. Bangladesh mostly welcomed them and provided protection under their free will, although refugees do not have any statutory legislation. No solution was found till 2013, and the number of refugee flights increased steadily.

Read more

IJEER 3/5

Aristotle’s viewpoint on Political Thinking

Raaid al Farah    Page 20-29 70

We will discuss about the great philosopher Aristotle. First we will see his bibliohgraphy. Then we will focus on his works. Then we will discuss about the thinking of Aristotle. His political views and contributions are to be focused in this artile.

Read more

IJEER 3/5

Various Philosophical Ideas of Contemporary Philosophers

Nazih Muneer Hanania    Page 41-56 62

However, the phrase is often confused with modern philosophy (which refers to an earlier period in Western philosophy), postmodern philosophy (which refers to continental philosophers' criticisms of modern philosophy), and with a non-technical use of the phrase referring to any recent philosophic work. The notable theory of this philosophy is existentialism, Marxism, dialectical materialism, common language philosophy etc. .

Read more

IJEER 3/5

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Contribution to the Philosophy

Bahir Aban Shamoun    Page 57-68 57

There were many philosophers like Hegel who contributed in many ways in the history of political philosophy. Hegel was a significant philosopher in the philosophy. He gave many arguments on various aspects. His views will be discussed in below. Then we will be clear about his contributions.

Read more

IJEER 2/12

Physical Education and Its Practical Implementation

Tomáš Chmela? Ph.D.   Page 27-39 104

We may have primary knowledge about physical knowledge. But the basically I will try to describe brightly the nature of physical education. We will also discuss here the importance of physical education. The historical base of physical education I will discuss here also. This is an article containing some important phases of physical education.

Read more