Submission Open for IJEER Volume-3, Number-10, October 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 October, 2019

International Journal for Empirical Education and Research

Human Rights Implications of the NonRefoulement & Development

Author: Imrul Sheikh | Published on: 2018-05-31 00:22:43   Page: 1-16   203

Abstract
States are obliged for protection of refugees under international law on account of their membership of United Nations and signature or accession to International Refugee Instruments as well as International Human Rights Instruments. The legal basis for this international protection may either be customary international law or conventional international law. The basic customary international laws applicable to them are those pertinent fundamental human rights found in the International Bill of Human Rights. Hence, it is submitted that all states should protect the fundamental human rights of refugees under customary international law. Principle of non-refoulement is one of them. The refugee regime has generated a serious body of law that elaborates basic human rights norms and has important implications in and beyond the refugee context. There are a number of universal, regional and domestic human rights instruments and mechanisms which can be employed to enhance the protection of refugees and asylum seekers. This research aims at finding out the role of principle of non-refoulement in protecting refugees and asylum seekers under international human rights law

Keywords
Non-Refoulement; Human Rights; Implication; UDHR; ICCPR; ICESCR; ECHR ECtHR.

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Sheikh, I. (2018), Human Rights Implications of the NonRefoulement & Development. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research, 2(10), 1-16.

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    Sheikh, I. (2018) "Human Rights Implications of the NonRefoulement & Development", International Journal For Empirical Education and Research, 2(10), pp.1-16.

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    Sheikh, I.. Human Rights Implications of the NonRefoulement & Development. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research. 2018; 2(10): 1-16.

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    Sheikh, I.. Human Rights Implications of the NonRefoulement & Development. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research. 2018; 2(10): 1-16.

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    Sheikh, I.. Human Rights Implications of the NonRefoulement & Development. International Journal For Empirical Education and Research. 2018; 2(10): 1-16.

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    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->1.      <!--[endif]-->See Goodwin-Gill, The Refugee in International Law, Oxford University Press. New York, 1998. P.I 17

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->2.      <!--[endif]-->Lambert, H., 48 International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 1999, p-519; see also Islam, Md. Towhidul., 'Protection of Refugees against Refoulement' in The Dhaka University Studies. Pan-F \vl. Xv (l): 215-238, June 2004.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->3.      <!--[endif]-->Approved at a special United Nations conference on 28 July 1951. It entered into force on 22 April 1954.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->4.      <!--[endif]-->Akram and Rempel, “Temporary Protection as ail Instrument for Implementing the Right of Return for Palestinian Refugees,” p.161.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->5.      <!--[endif]-->Ibid.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->6.      <!--[endif]-->Newmark. R. L, 'Non-Refoulement run afoul: The Questionable  

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->7.      <!--[endif]-->International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (19 December 1966) 999 UNTS 171.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->8.      <!--[endif]-->Weissbrodt, D. and Hortreiter, I., “The Principle of Non-ReJintlement: Article 3 of the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in Comparison with the Non-Refouleinent provisions of other international human rights treaties’ (1999) 5 Buff. Hum.Rts.L.Rev.1, 43.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->9.      <!--[endif]-->Convention against Torture or other Cruel. Inhuman or Degrading Treatment (10 December 1984) 1465 UNTS 113.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->10.  <!--[endif]-->Organization of African Unity Convention governing the specific aspects of refugee problems in Africa (10 September 1969) 1001 UNTS 45.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->11.  <!--[endif]-->Kuruk, P., 'Asylum and the Non-Refoulement of Refugees: The case of the missing shipload of Liberian refugees' (1999) 35 Sian.J.Int'1 £.313, 332.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->12.  <!--[endif]-->European Convention on Human Rights (4 November 1950) 213 UNTS 221.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->13.  <!--[endif]-->Drafted by the European Convention and solemnly proclaimed on 7 December 2000 by the European Parliament, the Councilof Ministers and the European Commission. However its then legal status was uncertain and it did not have full legal effect until the entry into force of the TreatyofLisbonon 1 December 2009.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->14.  <!--[endif]-->American Convention on Human Rights (18 July 1978) 1144 UNTS 123.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->15.  <!--[endif]-->Adopted by the United Nations General Assemblyon 20 December 2006 and opened for signature on 6 February 2007. It entered into force on 23 December 2010.

    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->16.  <!--[endif]-->While the 'persecution' is not defined in humanitarian law, it refers as a minimum, to serious violations of human rights (right to life, freedom and security) on such grounds as ethnicity, nationality, religion or political opinion. See Article 1 of the 1951 Refugee Convention; UNHCR Handbook Procedures United Kingdom Border Agency. Asylum Policy Instructions (October 2006) \5.;see, for example. O v Independent Federal Asylum Board (UBAS) (26 September 2007) Case 1282: Administrative Court (Austria), Case no.2006/19/0521 (translation by Anne Kallies).    

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    <!-- [if !supportLists]-->18.  <!--[endif]-->Consultations on International Protection. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 88-177. Farmer, Alice (2008): ‘Non-refoulement and jus cogens: limiting anti-terror measures that threaten refugee protection.’ Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 23, 1-38. Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. and McAdam, Jane (2007): The Refugee in International Law. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 3rd edition. Hathaway, James C. (2005): The Rights of Refugees under International Law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Kugelmann, Dieter (2010): ’Refugees.’ In: Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed.): The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Oxford, Oxford University Press, (at http://opil.ouplaw.com – article last updated: March 2010). Pirjola, Jari (2007): ’Shadows in Paradise – Exploring Non-Refoulement as an Open Concept.’ International Journal of Refugee Law 19, 639-660.

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    Author Details


    Imrul Sheikh
    Department of Law
    Stamford University
    sheikhimrul765@gmail.com