Submission Open for IJEER Volume-3, Number-10, October 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 October, 2019

International Journal for Empirical Education and Research

All Articles

IJEER 2/4

Changes in Promoter and Inhibitor Substances During Dormancy Release in Apple Buds Under Foliar-Applied Dormancy-Breaking Agents

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 1-20 81

The effect of hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex) at different concentrations for reaching early break dormancy in buds of "Astrachan" apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees and their effects on metabolic changes in the content of buds from promoter and inhibitor substances during their release from dormancy was investigated. The efficiency of early bud break was noticed in varying degrees with Dormex at different concentrations. All applied concentrations led to early bud break, short flowering duration, high percentages of bud break and fruit-set, high contents of total indoles, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, total and conjugated phenols and low content of abscisic acid and free phenols. These results were positively reflected in the final yield. Accordingly, we recommend using Dormex at 3% for reaching the early break dormancy in buds of "Astrachan" apple trees under Egyptian winter conditions and maximizing the yield by regulating the hormonal and phenolic content in buds.

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IJEER 2/4

The Theory of Reality: A Critical & Philosophical Elaboration

Kathryn Collins    Page 21-26 59

Reality is a concept of things which really exist. In philosophy and science reality has discussed elaborately. This essay concerned this elaboration. In a wider definition, reality includes everything that is and has been, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible. A still broader definition includes everything that has existed, exists, or will exist.

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IJEER 2/4

Metalworking Fluid Exposure and Consequences on Skin Health in a Metal Machining Factory: Review Article

Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Jabbar Ph.D.   Page 27-35 92

Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are a variety of substances can be used during machining of metals such as cutting, turning, grinding, milling and drilling. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in United States of America has stated that MWFs available in different forms such as straight oil (neat oil), soluble oil (emulsifiable oil), semisynthetic MWFs, and synthetic MWFs and during the machining processes worker can be exposed to MWFs through skin contact and inhalation. MWFs in machining factory allow significant bacterial growth in the fluids and aerosols which cause dermatological and respiratory adverse health effects among exposed workers. skin diseases that MWF exposure can cause various morphology of skin disorders such as skin scaling or dryness. Semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods (DREAM) in both occupational and epidemiological survey.

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IJEER 2/4

Changes in Metabolic Processes during Break Dormancy in Apple Buds under Foliar-Applied Garlic Extract

Mohamed A. Seif El-Yazal    Page 36-57 101

The effect of garlic extract at different concentrations for reaching early break dormancy in buds of "Anna" apple (Malus sylvestris, Mill) trees and their effects on metabolic changes in the content of shoots from (water content %, total carbohydrates, total sugars, reducing sugars, anthocyanine, total free amino acids, free proline, total indoles and free phenoles) during their release from dormancy were investigated. The trees were grown in loamy sand soil, and sprayed with five treatments; 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% garlic extract. Generally, it was found that all studied flowering parameters; date of flower buds break, percentage of bud’s break, fruit set, total number of fruits/tree, yield/tree (kg) and seasonal changes in some chemical constituents of shoots; water content %, total carbohydrates, total sugars, reducing sugars, anthocyanine, total free amino acids, free proline and total indoles were increased with the application of different treatments. The best results were obtained from the treatments of garlic extract at 15 % flowed by 20 %. On the contrary, the same treatments decreased free phenols in shoots as compared to the control.

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