Submission Open for IJEER Volume-3, Number-10, October 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 October, 2019

International Journal for Empirical Education and Research

All Articles

IJEER 1/1

A Literature Review on Computer Cartography

Anik Shuvra Daw    Page 1-10 261

Depending upon how we look at it, Computer Cartography can be considered now to be twenty years old (the first contour map was produced about twenty years ago), or a dozen years (the first major project in Computer Cartography, the Canadian Geographical Information System was started in 1963). This is not to say that we started out from scratch twelve or twenty years ago. On the contrary, we had all the tools and all the power from different disciplines, including Computer Science, Geography, Cartography and the Survey Sciences. If we assume that every discipline has some milestones in its development, it has to be said that in Computer Cartography these milestones did not happen or happened virtually unnoticed by the discipline. .

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Early Researchers and Development of Cultural Sociology

Maria M. Goodson    Page 11-22 126

Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; these include expressive forms like art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies like tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. .

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Cyclone & its Adverse Effects on Climate Change

Hai Zou    Page 23-35 118

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extra tropical cyclones of the largest scale (the synoptic scale). Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie within smaller musicale.

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A Geographical Description of Exogenesis Processes

Sulislaw Pawlak    Page 36-45 117

The exogenesis processes are the processes that shape the land by forces coming on or above the Earth’s surface (exogenesis forces). These are processes that take place on the earth’s surface. They are subdivided in two categories and they are Processes of Degradation, Processes of Ag-gradation. .

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Different Stages of Evolution of Humankind

Slaven Jozic    Page 46-77 117

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates—in particular genus Homo—and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language, as well as interbreeding with other hominines, which indicate that human evolution was not linear but a web. The study of human evolution involves several scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, paleontology, neurobiology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics. Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous period, and the earliest fossils appear in the Paleocene, around 55 million years ago. Within the Hominoidea (apes) superfamily, the Hominidae family diverged from the Hylobatidae (gibbon) family some 15–20 million years ago; African great apes (subfamily Homininae) diverged from orangutans (Ponginae) about 14 million years ago; the Hominini tribe (humans, Australopithecines and other extinct biped genera, and chimpanzee) parted from the Gorillini tribe (gorillas) between 8–9 million years ago; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina (humans and biped ancestors) and Panina (chimps) separated 4–7.

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