Submission Open for IJTEM Volume-2, Number-11, November 2019 | Submission Deadline- 20 November, 2019


International Journal of Tax Economics and Management

All Articles

IJTEM 1/1

Was Wealth Tax Levied in Turkey Between 1942 and 1943 A Crisis?

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Özer ÖZÇELIK ; Öner GÜMÜS    Page 1-12 561 (Abstract Views)

Wealth tax was levied in Turkey in the period which World War II was on the agenda of the World. Put it differently, economic conditions of Turkey was quite bad. To meet the necessities occuring due to the bad conditions, Turkish government levied this tax. Then, an act known as wealth tax act was released. The amount of this tax was unusual.

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IJTEM 1/1

Validity of Malthusian Theory of Population in 20th Century in Terms of Using Scientific Technology to the Economic Growth and Strength

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Mahfuzur Rahman    Page 13-21 337 (Abstract Views)

In the late eighteenth century, in 1798, England's renowned economist Thomas Malthus, in his book ‘Essay on the Principal of Population’1, propounded a stirring theory about population, according to his name, it is called the Malthusian Population Theory. Malthus discussed the problem of population increase in the food supply and the scarcity of production rule. According to Malthus, population increases in geometric rates and food production increases at arithmetical rate. In the twentieth century, we will see how logical the population theory of Malthus is in today's world and how unreasonable. Although the population theory of Malthus is somewhat true for the underdeveloped countries.

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IJTEM 1/1

Sociologic Factors and Social Structure in Preparation of Tax Acts and The Assessment of Personal Income Tax in Terms Of Suitability to Social Structure

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Ahmet AK    Page 22-36 604 (Abstract Views)

Social state law has a need to regular fiscal source to maintain its sovereignty and to fulfill the duties the Constitution levies. Fort his reason, use of taxation power is a political obligation. The regulations related to tax concerns the whole society. Tax acts has a lot of features not included in other many acts. The most important one of these is that tax acts have to show a suitable change to the economic life altering constantly.

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IJTEM 1/1

Tax & Value Added Tax—In View of Bangladesh

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Md. Ashiquzzaman    Page 37-48 289 (Abstract Views)

Most developing counties are increasingly focusing on domestic resource mobilization toward economic development. In this context, tax performance is of crucial importance, especially for a developing country, since it is the prime source for domestic resource mobilization. This article reviews the incidence of income taxation in Bangladesh tax system. The main purpose of the study is to determine how the burden of personal and corporation income taxes is allocated among taxpayers of different income groups. Bangladesh faces many problems in raising sufficient tax revenues to fund its economic and social development.

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IJTEM 1/1

The Possible Effects of Personal Income Tax and Value Added Tax on Consumer Behaviors

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Ahmet AK ; Öner Gümüs    Page 49-58 810 (Abstract Views)

In economics literature, it is accepted that all people are rational and they try to maximize their utilities as possible as they can. In addition, economic theories are formed with the assumptions not suitable to real life. For instance, indifference curves are drawn with the assumptions that there are two goods, people are rational, more is preferred to less and so on. Hence, the consumer behaviors are guessed according to this analysis. Nevertheless, these are invalid in real life.

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IJTEM 1/2

An Evaluation of Tax and Social Security Premium Incentives for Employers in Working Life from the Standpoint of Turkish Laws

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Esra Dundar Aravacik    Page 1-25 260 (Abstract Views)

A social state of welfare that procures a variety of economic and social policies for all to grasp some minimal standards of living, needs to inaugurate winning recruitment strategies for effectively tackling the obstacles of employment that thwart steady economic growth. Certain incentives are currently offered by the government for employers to pick, involving some tax exclusions and relief in workers’ social security obligations, in an effort to help creation of new job opportunities, lowering the risk of unemployment and an increase in tendency among youngsters and women toward joining the workforce. These incentives also serve some greater goals such as channelling investments, boosting throughput, forging business owners to achieve better in competition and thereby augmenting the overall competitive power of the country on the international arena, and perseverance of R&D efforts for technological advancement. The incentives pursued in both industrial states and developing countries on employment for economic and social purposes have been transposed to the government practice in Turkey, as well, as part of the ongoing struggle against problems of employment. This study puts the magnifying glass on the current range of tax and insurance incentives for private employers as secured by the Turkish Laws in effect, in the hope of helping a rise in employment rates.

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IJTEM 1/2

Effect on Market Size in terms of Average Income and Demand: A Context Concerning Bangladesh

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MD. Asaduzzaman    Page 26-33 276 (Abstract Views)

In a developing country, the income of most people is very low and some people earn a lot more than that. Bangladesh is not out of this rule. It is a very hard task to measure the demands of people due to the rising and falling of income suddenly. It is a very natural fact that the income ups and downs suddenly of a developing country due to the political issues, social issues, and naturals disasters. The average income is calculated according to all this.

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IJTEM 1/2

Economic Systems and Problems in Human Society

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Shirley B. Woodson    Page 34-44 247 (Abstract Views)

Economists could never agree on what economics can be called. But many agree on many aspects of economic negotiation and analysis. According to Adam Smith, ‘Economics is the science of discussion on wealth’. John Stewart Mill thinks that ‘the meaning of wealth is fundamental and discusses its production and distribution rules’. According to Ricardo, ‘Political Economy is the nature of the property and the reason why he thinks it should be said that it can’t be construed as a rule by which to determine the division of the rules in different classes, but the rationale is to make a fairly accurate rule.

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IJTEM 1/2

A Review of International Trade Law

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Md. Ashiquzzaman    Page 45-69 218 (Abstract Views)

International trade law refers to the import and export of goods and other things between the two countries. For international trade, it is a very important matter in the business sector to know and observe international trade law in details. In this article we will discuss international trade and international trade law. Which is a very important issue in international trade. The aim of this article was to try to discuss all of the international trade issues.

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IJTEM 1/2

Gross Domestic Product & it’s Various Approaches

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Satish Chandra Agarwal    Page 70-85 248 (Abstract Views)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time, often annually GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore, using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations. .

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IJTEM 2/1

World Economic Forum & its Organization, Membership & Activities

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Satish Chandra Agarwal    Page 1-15 179 (Abstract Views)

The World Economic Forum (WEF), based in Colony-Geneva, Switzerland, was founded in 1971 as a not-for-profit organization. It gained formal status in January 2015 under the Swiss Host-State Act, confirming the role of the Forum as an International Institution for Public-Private Cooperation. The Forum's mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas". .

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IJTEM 2/1

An Overview on Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development

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Padmini S.V.    Page 16-24 225 (Abstract Views)

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; French: Organization de co-operation ET de development economies, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organization with 36 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. As of 2017, the OECD member states collectively comprised 62. 2% of global nominal GDP (US$49.

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IJTEM 2/1

Production Possibility Frontier & its Relation to Other Costs

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Sanabil Almubidin    Page 25-32 211 (Abstract Views)

A production–possibility frontier (PPF) or production possibility curve (PPC) is a curve which shows various combinations of set of two goods which can be produced with the given resources and technology where the given resources are fully and efficiently utilized per unit time. One good can only be produced by diverting resources from other goods, and so by producing less of them. This tradeoff is usually considered for an economy, but also applies to each individual, household, and economic organization. .

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IJTEM 2/1

Balance of Trade: Theories and Practices

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Puti Genta Nuraini    Page 33-41 182 (Abstract Views)

The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period. Sometimes a distinction is made between a balance of trade for goods versus one for services. The balance of trade measures a flow of exports and imports over a given period of time. The notion of the balance of trade does not mean that exports and imports are "in balance" with each other. If a country exports a greater value than it imports, it has a trade surplus or positive trade balance, and conversely, if a country imports a greater value than it exports, it has a trade deficit or negative trade balance.

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IJTEM 2/1

Measuring GDP and Economic Growth: An Economic Barometer

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Alpa Tarun Mohanty    Page 42-58 158 (Abstract Views)

This essay based on Michaele Parkin, Macroeconomics, 8th edition. Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced in a period of time, often annually. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore, using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between nations. .

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IJTEM 2/2

Different Periods on Balance of International Payment

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Puti Genta Nuraini ; Intan Yulianti    Page 1-18 208 (Abstract Views)

The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B. O. P. or BOP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and the rest of the world in a particular period of time (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year). The balance of payments is a summary of all monetary transactions between a country and rest of the world.

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IJTEM 2/2

Different Variations of Cost Curve in Economics

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Hartini Ab Ghani    Page 19-28 162 (Abstract Views)

In economics, a cost curve is a graph of the costs of production as a function of total quantity produced. In a free market economy, productively efficient firms optimize their production process by minimizing cost consistent with each possible level of production, and the result is a cost curve; and profit maximizing firms use cost curves to decide output quantities. There are various types of cost curves, all related to each other, including total and average cost curves; marginal ("for each additional unit") cost curves, which are equal to the differential of the total cost curves; and variable cost curves. Some are applicable to the short run, others to the long run. .

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IJTEM 2/2

Marginal Cost & its Variation in Different Economy Scales

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Antônio Souza Araujo    Page 29-34 171 (Abstract Views)

In economics, marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit; that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good. Intuitively, marginal cost at each level of production includes the cost of any additional inputs required to produce the next unit. At each level of production and time period being considered, marginal costs include all costs that vary with the level of production, whereas other costs that do not vary with production are fixed and thus have no marginal cost. For example, the marginal cost of producing an automobile will generally include the costs of labor and parts needed for the additional automobile and not the fixed costs of the factory that have already been incurred. In practice, marginal analysis is segregated into short and long-run cases, so that, over the long run, all costs (including fixed costs) become marginal.

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IJTEM 2/2

Marginal Utility & its Diminishing Methods

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Luiz Carvalho Castro ; Antônio Souza Araujo    Page 35-47 250 (Abstract Views)

In this article we have shown what is marginal utility in economics and its diminishing method mathematically. Marginal utility is an economic concept and very important to the theory of economic sciences. So we selected this topic to describe it with the concept of economics and mathematics elaborately. At the beginning of this article readers will find the definition of marginal utility and at the middle of this article, readers will find it's diminishing method mathematically. The term marginal utility has a good impact in economics.

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IJTEM 2/3

Demand for Labor and Market Theory of Wage Determination

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Hu Kao    Page 1-11 118 (Abstract Views)

This economics is not merely economics but also discusses about many spheres of the labors. Labor economics look out to recognize the dynamics and functions of the markets of labor. The labor market function is by the interaction and dealing of employers and workers. Labor economics tries to understand the result pattern of income, employment and wages by looking at the workers or employs and labor is the measurement of the work that is done by the human beings. Usually, there is dissimilarity in labor economics and other aspects of production such as capital and land.

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IJTEM 2/3

Insurance and Insurance Risks in Health Economics

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Henryk Michalski    Page 12-20 86 (Abstract Views)

Health Economics is a significant field of economy. Development of a nation is crucially connected with the condition of health of its people, and health is now been accepted as an important determinant of economic development of a nation. Here, we will discuss about many topics of Health Economics. .

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IJTEM 2/3

An Overview on Macroeconomics: Ideas, Approaches and Importance

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Fai Tsai Ph.D.   Page 21-31 104 (Abstract Views)

This article includes various topics related macroeconomics. In the beginning the nature of macroeconomics are described. Then the article turns describing many terms of this macroeconomics. The utility of macroeconomics will be explained in this article. Besides; scope of macroeconomics are also described in this article.

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IJTEM 2/3

Impact of Social Economics in Social Development

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Wu Mai Ph.D.   Page 43-53 113 (Abstract Views)

Here, in the article, basically the society and economics how are related that will presented. Even, the nature of social economics or socioeconomics will be described here. This is an important branch of economics. Tis article contains various aspects of social economics. Some of important topics are as like social status, social class and so on.

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IJTEM 2/4

The Impact or Role of Business in Economics

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Sara MacDonnell    Page 1-11 105 (Abstract Views)

Here I will try to represent basic ideas about economics. The differences between organizations of different kinds will be explained. Different kinds of businesses are presented here. Our moral responsibilities and regulation of forming business here will be focused. Besides, the influences of government will be explained.

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IJTEM 2/4

Economics and Poverty: An Elaborate Discussion

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Chung Lu    Page 21-32 130 (Abstract Views)

Through this article, I will discuss about some natures of poverty. I am intend to explain my opinion to the measurement of poverty. There are some spheres of removing or eradicating the poverty. Poverty is defined in many ways according to many sources. There are some common characteristics of poverty.

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IJTEM 2/4

Trade Theory in International Economics

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Krzysztof Król    Page 33-42 190 (Abstract Views)

You will get an overview about the nature of trade theory. Many terms related international trade here will be discussed. Overview of Mercantilism we will discuss here. Theory of absolute advantage will be deeply discussed here. Comparative Advantage related the advantage term here I will describe.

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IJTEM 2/4

Introductory Discussion on Microeconomics

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You Peng    Page 43-53 129 (Abstract Views)

Here, the article will describe the definition of various types of microeconomics. The usefulness of economics are described here. And then the microeconomics’ nature has been described. Besides, microeconomic terms and their descriptions are presented in this article. How the microeconomics are related to the practical life that will be described.

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IJTEM 2/5

Opinions of Accounting and Taxation Applications Program Students on Accounting Auditing Activities

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Murat KARAHAN    Page 1-12 104 (Abstract Views)

This study is designed to evaluate the Accounting and Taxation Program against students' accounting audit activities. In this context, a questionnaire about accounting audit was applied in order to determine the opinions of the students. Moreover, gender information of the students who participated in the survey were also collected. Findings from the questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS v 24. 0 package program.

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IJTEM 2/5

Readability of Annual Reports and the Agency Problem of Corporation in the Context of Pakistan

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Muneeb Ahmad ; Zhou Maochun    Page 13-27 139 (Abstract Views)

This study is conducted to investigate the issue of readability of the annual report, which caused the conflict between the shareholders and the management. Annual reports are the integral source of information for the shareholders regarding their investment. To investigate the importance of the readability, we took the data of 21 non-financial companies which are in the KSE-30 index of Pakistan for the 10 years (2008-2017). The findings of our results depict that those firms whose annual report is more readable as compare to other facing low problem of the conflict between the shareholders and the management. Further results of this study indicate that under the better quality measures, relevent audit increase the readability of the annual report which reduce the agency cost.

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IJTEM 2/5

Components of Public Finance and Public Debt Management

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Mackenzie Scott    Page 28-38 127 (Abstract Views)

Economics & Public Finance support topic page covers issues such as macroeconomic stability, fiscal policy, economic growth, public debt, public finance management (including procurement), financial accountability as well as their practical implications for development programmers, in particular budget support operations but also technical cooperation projects. .

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IJTEM 2/5

Global Political Economy and Political Economy Components

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Boguslaw Szczepanski    Page 50-60 103 (Abstract Views)

This is an article which includes the nature of political economy. Here the global economy is explained. Here the focuses of political economy is also explained. The components of political economy how related with the traditional economics are also explained. Anyone can know about the nature of power and distinction with political and other types of power through this article.

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IJTEM 2/6

The Application of Invitation to Explanation in Turkish Tax System: Scope, Aims, and Assessments

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Fatih Saracoglu ; Öner Gümüs ; Yunus Emre Ülkü    Page 1-11 234 (Abstract Views)

In this article, definition, aims, conditions and scope of invitation to explanation bringing as a new application and as an administrative solution way of tax disputes to Turkish tax legislation by reorganizing within the scope of 370th abrogated article of Turkish Tax Procedural Act have been explained; predetermination and conditions, explanation assessment commission and assessment of explanation included in this application have been revealed roughly and they have been assessed by considering different perspectives. .

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IJTEM 2/6

Analysis of the Effect of Sharia Stock Trading Activity Factors and Macroeconomic Factors on the Performance of Sharia Stocks in the Capital Market in Indonesia

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Teddy Sumirat Bassar    Page 12-28 166 (Abstract Views)

This research aimed to analyze the influence of sharia stock trading activity and macroeconomic factors on the performance of Sharia stocks in the capital market in Indonesia. The theoretical foundation used in this research was the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which was a model that connects the expected rate of return with the risk of balanced market conditions. In addition, the theory of Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) which has the view that the expected return for a security will be influenced by several risk factors. Shariastock performance measurement was carried out using the Sharpe Index evaluation measuring instrument. The Sharpe index measures portfolio performance by connecting between returns and total risks as indicators.

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IJTEM 2/6

Free Market Economy and Capitalism

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Ania Symanska    Page 29-41 66 (Abstract Views)

This is an article containing various topics of capitalism. Here we can learn the features of capitalism. Besides the background of capitalism are presented here. Some philosophers who established this type of economy will be explained here. I presented some criticisms here also against this type of economy.

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IJTEM 2/6

Islamic Banking in Bangladesh: Progress and Potentials

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Mahadi Hasan    Page 42-61 66 (Abstract Views)

This is a brief discussion on Islamic banking of Bangladesh. In this article, we will represent some bank’s statement and data. Here there is a great presentation on rapid growth in Islamic banking. Besides the evolution and future of Islamic banking are being presented. The information about success and related many things are being presented in this article.

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IJTEM 2/6

Money Laundering and Aspects

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Shirley B. Woodson    Page 62-71 90 (Abstract Views)

Money Laundering is a topic which is important to know. In this article, we will discuss more topics related to money laundering. We will discuss the way of laundering. We will suggest some aspects to resolve this problem. Importantly, how this can affect to others that will be revised here.

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IJTEM 2/1

Information Economics Aspires

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Durad Cerk    Page 1-13 127 (Abstract Views)

Researchers in the economics of information come from a variety of disciplines. While most economics of information research appears in economics and in the library and information science, Machlup and Mansfield in The Economics of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages note contributions from other fields including psychology, sociology, linguistics, communication, engineering, computer science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and cybernetics. In this article, some important issues will distinctly be represented. Thus anybody can know about information economics and many data. .

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IJTEM 2/1

Financial Condition of City Bank

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Md. Asaduzzaman    Page 14-27 154 (Abstract Views)

I have conducted this report on “Marketing practices and the customer satisfaction level of The City Bank Limited. My hoarier supervising Hasan Al Mamun assigned this topic, Assistant professor Faculty of Business & Economics, United International University of Bangladesh. Now, in this article, I will present the financial condition of City bank Bangladesh with some specified heading. .

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IJTEM 2/1

Personal Financial Management and Taxation

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Filiberto Russo    Page 28-41 166 (Abstract Views)

Modern times are characterized by a high emphasis on consumerism and more of everything. Perhaps, such phenomenon represents, according to many the hyper-materialization of modern life which inevitably puts more pressure on our financial resources. Our children are demanding more in terms of clothing, activities, and various other possessions; while we are no longer content with 2 pairs of shoes but 1/2 dozen at least, to say the least. This means that we need to earn more to keep in line with our material requirements, or rather to keep consuming. In this article, we will discuss personal finance and their contributions.

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IJTEM 2/1

Microcredit System and Bangladesh

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Ashfiqur Rahman    Page 42-53 171 (Abstract Views)

Microcredit is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to impoverished borrowers who typically lack collateral, steady employment, or verifiable credit history. In this article, we will present some specified reports on microcredit. The noble prize winner Dr. Yunus made a revolution in Bangladesh. Here the situation of microcredit in Bangladesh with some data are presented in this article.

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IJTEM 2/1

Tax and Taxation and its Character

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Dimitrina Toma    Page 54-64 168 (Abstract Views)

This paper investigates whether an emissions tax (equivalent to an emissions cap) maximizes social welfare (defined as the sum of consumer and producer surplus) in the presence of incomplete regulation (leakage) or market power by analyzing an intensity standard regulating emissions per unit of output. This paper analyzes the effect of passive investment in rival firms on the setting of uniform taxes and uniform absolute emission standards by the government. This article is concerned with taxation in general, its principles, its objectives, and its effects; specifically, the article discusses the nature and purposes of taxation, whether taxes should be classified as direct or indirect, the history of taxation, canons and criteria of taxation, and economic effects of taxation, including shifting and incidence (identifying who bears the ultimate burden of taxes when that burden is passed from the person or entity deemed legally responsible for it to another). .

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